Last week I posted the above medicine show snapshot dated 1894 that most Keaton Historians believe was actually taken four years later.
The couples pose outside a tent with Dr. Hill, the resident Kickapoos, and a pair of dogs. Bess and [pipe-smoking] Mira are dolled up in frilly gowns and hats, but it is Joe who dominates the picture, slouching like one of the outlaw Dalton brothers, legs defiantly apart, one hand on his hip, hat cocked at a rakish angle, a half-smoked cigar held between his fingers. [Buster Keaton Cut to the Chase]
It is believed to be a snapshot taken in the Winter (Dec 1897- Feb 1898), when the Houdini’s (Harry and Bess) were traveling with the Keatons (Joe and Myra) as part of Dr. Hills California Concert Company (Medicine Show)
[Note: Per Silverman Notes to Houdini, HH played with medicine shows earlier as part of the “Brothers Houdini”, having toured with Hamlin’s Wizard Company in Iowa in Feb 1893, and with Oliver’s Wizard Oil Company in Illinois in 1894.]
Was the photo misdated by four years to prove that Harry Houdini had been present at Buster’s birth?
Joseph Francis Keaton (aka Buster) was born on October 4, 1895.
His parents (Joe H. Keaton and Myra) were members of the Mohawk Indian Medicine Company, a traveling vaudeville show, (along with Harry Houdini?), and were in Piqua, Kansas when the baby arrived.
[Note: In September 1895, Houdini bought a half interest in the American Gaiety Girls and toured with the troupe (through eastern Pennsylvania and upper New York State and into New England) for five or so months as part proprietor and manager, before joining the Marco company in the Spring of 1896].
The story goes that when Keaton was a toddler (6 months old per Buster and 18 months old per Joe), Houdini witnessed him take a spill down a flight of stairs and emerged unharmed. “That was a real buster,” the legend has Houdini saying of the fall, and thus was a lifelong nickname born (unless the story is apocryphal, which is certainly possible).
Per Silverman Notes to Houdini, the myth was probably started by Buster himself, who admired and emulated Houdini.
According to Marion Meade’s, “Buster Keaton Cut to the Chase”: The first mention of Buster’s nickname appeared in a 1903 newspaper clipping, where Myra Keaton attributes the name to “a family friend” but didn’t mention the name. The following year Joe identified him as George Pardey, the actor. It was in 1921 that Buster (or his agent Harry Brand] decided to make Houdini a cornerstone of his legend.
So is the photo evidence that the Houdini’s (Harry and Bess) were traveling with the Keaton’s (Joe and Myra) as part of Dr. Hills California Concert Company in 1898?
To answer that, we need to be able to confirm their identity in the photo.
Harry Houdini was 5’-5.276” and Bess was lucky if she was 5’-0”. Myra was not a tall gal (4’-11”) while Joe has been listed at 5’-11”. So the women should be similar in height, but the woman identified as Bess appears to be much taller and doesn’t really look like Bess. As far as Houdini, the only one in that photo that remotely looks like Houdini is holding the dog on the left, not the one identified standing on the right.
I wonder if there is any legitimate print material evidence (photos, newspaper clippings, playbills, etc) ) to indicate Joe and Myra Keaton (Buster’s parents) were traveling with Harry and Bessie Houdini in the California Concert Co. (or perhaps, another traveling Medicine Show). There is definitely evidence for Harry and Bessie:
BTW: According to Professor’s Solomon’s Lives of Conjurers, Volume Three, The California Concert Company was the joint enterprise of two medicine men, Dr. Hill and Dr. Pratt. Dr. Hill was from San Francisco and in his early twenties. He had shoulder-length hair (a coiffure popular with medicine men) and a full beard — a prophet hawking an elixir. Dr. Pratt was from Denver. In Houdini: His Life-Story, Bess describes Pratt as “a white-haired old gentleman with the air of a retired clergyman”. [Note: The doctor in the photo does not match either description for Dr. Hill or Dr. Pratt.]
Special thanks to Ron Pesch for sharing controversial photo and newspaper roster clipping that inspired me to do this post.
- John Cox post: Did Houdini really give Buster Keaton his name?
- Dean Carnegie post: Houdini, Keaton, Thurston and more
Although not Medicine Show evidence, the following is evidence of Houdini on the same bill as the Three Keatons in a 1907 Boston Journal Ad that our friend Dean Carnegie found: